U.S. News STEM Solutions Supporting Organizations share a common vision for a robust STEM-educated workforce and a broad STEM pipeline. Each organization has its own approach to the solutions that are working and here you will find their original, distinct insights into the state of STEM in the United States today.
Demand is growing for a strong STEM workforce. How can educators prepare today’s learners for tomorrow’s careers?
Many of the most valuable jobs of tomorrow depend on STEM education happening in classrooms today.
Yet, the U.S. Bureau of Labor and Statistics projects that by 2020 there will be 1.4 million IT jobs available but only 400,000 computer science graduates with the required skills to fill the positions. Companies continue to report their STEM jobs aren’t being filled, and HR departments are not finding applicants with the necessary skills for success. STEMconnector data shows there will soon be 3 million vacant jobs because students entering the workforce are lacking STEM skills. The good news is that STEM education initiatives are on the rise across the country to meet this growing demand in the workforce.
To satisfy this appetite for STEM, educators are feeling the pressure to make curriculum changes, but many are not sure how to begin. School districts have responded to this pressure by providing courses for gifted students and STEM-focused after-school clubs. However, this selective approach is failing to provide adequate STEM experiences for all Pre-K-12 students.
Timing is crucial for sparking the curiosity necessary to place students on the path toward a STEM career. By the time students reach high school, they have already developed strong, often skewed, perceptions about themselves and future STEM careers, leaving educators playing catch-up.
The idea that STEM education is only for the most gifted students on track for graduate degrees is now a falsehood. Roughly 35 percent of the 8.6 million STEM jobs needed nationwide will require sub-baccalaureate degrees by the year 2020. Apple recently shared that 28 percent of its workforce does not have a 4-year degree. Armed with this data, what is the appropriate path forward for educators to ensure the next generation possesses a proper amount of STEM knowledge?
While many have acknowledged that something needs to change, it is unfair to expect educators to institute foundational changes without extensive support. However, a study conducted by Horizon Research could light the way for districts looking to make modifications to curriculum.
In the NSF Urban Systemic Initiative, $1 billion was dedicated across 10 years to encourage middle- and high-school math and science teachers to conduct more hands-on inquiry and use technology. After 10 years, Horizon researchers found that teachers needed 80 hours of professional development (PD) focused on a defined set of strategies to change their practice and 160 hours of PD focused on a defined set of strategies to change the culture.
As a result of this research, we now have a better understanding of what it will take to truly change the culture and practices in a school. The onus will not fall only on teachers, but administrators, leaders, communities, and the broader education community. Professional development will be the key to this transformation. Horizon researchers further determined the most effective PD was not just direct pull-out training, but a combination of pull-out in-person training combined with job-embedded coaching.
The beauty of STEM in all Pre-K-12 classes is that every student loves to find solutions for real-world problems. Asking students to create solutions to these problems respects their unique thinking and invites them to use their abilities to generate innovations that can make the world a better place.
When students and teachers develop 21st-century skills like collaboration, critical thinking, and creativity, all types of learners become engaged. Asking students to work together to find solutions in authentic situations further develops their communication skills and character, both vital to joining the STEM workforce of the future.
How STEM for All Students Can Make an Impact
While I was serving as Director of PreK-12 STEM for the 145,000 students in the Charlotte Mecklenburg School District, my colleagues and I began STEM work with students in our struggling Title 1 schools. Many of these students were several years below grade level in reading and math. We discovered, however, that these economically disadvantaged students were excellent problem solvers, constantly engaged in repurposing items to entertain themselves at home and accustomed to out-of-the-box thinking.
By providing professional development for teachers to support hands-on inquiry using real-world problems, we engaged students who were not typically excited to be in school. Though we began the process struggling to reach students who had discipline problems, were below grade level in reading and math, and did not come from families that had graduated from college, we soon witnessed rapid changes.
After one year of providing STEM teaching and learning, our state test data indicated the average student experienced up to two years of growth in classes utilizing STEM practices, while special education and English Language Learners were experiencing four to five years of growth. Teachers experienced more job satisfaction and the attrition rates at these Title 1 schools decreased swiftly as a result of the support and success.
Following the success of the first year of STEM with Charlotte-Mecklenburg Title 1 schools, other schools in the district were eager to get involved. After three years, our fifth and eighth grade science test scores improved by 44 points, while the state scores increased by six points. Our math teachers dipped their toes in the STEM waters and added a short digital asset to their curriculum to make math relevant to students. This simple addition, coupled with a few non-threatening STEM practices integrated into their lessons, improved third through eighth grade math scores by 35 points, while the state scores increased by seven points.
When we began this work, there was a 37-point gap between economically disadvantaged students and their peers. After three years of STEM, the gap decreased to seven points. It’s rare for a school district to reduce the achievement gap so significantly, and so quickly. These results speak for themselves.
As Yoda says, “Do or do not; there is no try.”
Prior to serving as Discovery Education’s Vice President of Global STEM Initiatives, Dr. Moss taught biology and chemistry for 21 years and was the Director of PreK-12 STEM for Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools. Among her many achievements, she won a National Educator Award from the Milken Family Foundation. In 2011, Dr. Moss was selected by STEMconnector as one of the 100 Women Leaders in STEM. She was also selected in 2015 as one of Diversity Matters’ 100 Women leaders in STEM Innovation.
Dr. Moss holds a bachelor’s degree in zoology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, a master’s degree in science from Syracuse University and a doctorate in science curriculum and instruction from the Curtin Institute of Technology in Perth, Western Australia.
In some ways, Andrea is like many students. She enjoys going to the movies with friends and works in her spare time.
In other ways, she is very much unlike many of her peers. At only 18 and finishing up her first year of college, Andrea has already had her work published on the websites of UC San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School’s original and largest teaching hospital.
“I was always interested in science,” says Andrea. “Later I became more specifically interested in the life sciences and the human body.”
Andrea’s mother and older sister, both property managers, and her father, a machine operator, are surprised about her pursuit of a career in the life sciences.
Though Andrea isn’t sure where her interest originated, she was listening closely when her former chemistry teacher at San Marcos High School, Jorge Valdivieso, known to his students as “Mr. V,” told her about a program called Life Sciences Summer Institute (LSSI) during her sophomore year. Andrea has since interned twice at UCSD through LSSI. She was accepted into the Research Scholars program at UCSD through her application to LSSI and spent her first summer internship working with post-graduate students in an immunology lab headed by David Traver, Ph.D. (Research Scholars is a part of UCSD’s Academic Connections working with Ed Abeyta, Ph.D., Assistant Dean for Community Engagement and Director of Pre-Collegiate and Career Preparations Programs at UCSD Extension, and is a long-time partner of LSSI, providing annual scholarship opportunities to LSSI applicants.)
“Andrea is a born scientist and artist. The poster she created describing her work was absolutely beautiful and explained a lot about what she learned about genetics,” says Elizabeth Komives, Ph.D., head of the Komives Laboratory at UCSD and a participating research faculty member of Research Scholars. “Andrea truly exemplifies the newest acronym for the future of science: STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art and mathematics).”
Recently, Andrea spent three weeks at The Villa Lab on the UCSD campus working with Elizabeth Villa, Ph.D., and Reika (Watanabe) Castillon, Ph.D., on capturing images of cellular structures. This time, in addition to her internship at The Villa Lab, Dr. Komives asked Andrea to serve as a teaching assistant to the first-year Research Scholars participants.
The Villa Lab is interested in a process called cryo-electron microscopy (“cryo-EM”), a way to observe specimens in their native environment in 2D without staining or changing anything in the molecular structure. During Andrea’s internship, the lab was working on a very important cancer-related collaborative project using a state-of-the-art technique called cryo-electron tomography (CET) — a 3D version of cryo-EM — to study how light can be used to treat cancer.
“We worked with a scientist from Harvard named Bryan Spring, Ph.D. (now at Northeastern University), who at the time had created a type of antibiotic that was photoactivatable, meaning the nanoparticles only break open if they’re induced by light,” Andrea explains. “It helps reduce toxicity in the body and localize tumors. We wanted to develop a 3D model of the environment to see what the cell looked like with a particle inside.”
It is clear Andrea has an understanding of the work beyond everyday biophysics.
“During her short stay, she very quickly grasped the concept of cryo-EM, which requires a substantial understanding of physics and mathematics,” shares Dr. Castillon. “She applied this knowledge to create a 3D reconstructed image called a tomogram and later extracted the valuable data set from the tomogram to present as a 3D model.”
Andrea’s image has since become associated with the study. A poster of Andrea’s work (seen in the photo) can be found here.
Of Andrea’s contribution, Dr. Villa says, “She worked on a figure my lab techs couldn’t do, so she taught herself scientific software — which certainly wasn’t easy to use — and got it to work analyzing the data we have. This figure ended up in a lot of nationally circulated press releases.”
Not only that, Andrea is “fantastic, creative, self-directed, curious, a very pleasant person to have in the lab,” adds Dr. Villa. “Everybody loves her.”
Now that Andrea has completed two rounds of LSSI internships, she currently attends San Diego Mesa College and hopes to transfer to UCSD or the University of Washington, focusing her studies on global health, then attend medical school or pursue clinical research.
In addition to family, friends, teachers and LSSI coordinator Erika Aranguré, to all of whom Andrea gives special thanks, she has garnered new fans.
On Andrea’s work as teaching assistant, Dr. Komives shares, “She was so helpful, making sure everyone knew what they were supposed to do and where they were supposed to be. She was a big asset to the program.”
Dr. Castillon says, “I was really impressed with her potential.”
Dr. Villa agrees. “She’s going to be able to do whatever she wants in her life. We should definitely support people like Andrea.”
Since then, Andrea has been mentioned by Mayor Kevin Faulconer in his State of the City Address. He spoke about her achievements in the biotechnology field and used her as an example to encourage support for other young adults wanting to be successful in a scientific field.
Andrea now works at the San Diego Workforce Partnership (SDWP) as an LSSI Peer Job Coach, guiding other students who are looking for opportunities in the science field, as well as attending various STEM events.
“As someone who has been through the program, working behind the scenes gives me a bit of an advantage,” she says. “I know how to help students tailor their applications to make them great candidates for an internship in biotech, and I can also give them advice on how to prepare to work in a lab. I’m lucky enough to have worked on both sides.”
Andrea’s experience in LSSI and working at the SDWP has shaped her to be the person she is today.
“It has shown me the career path I want to pursue, but most importantly, it’s shown me how to help others,” she says. “Whether that be through scientific research or helping other students, the most important thing we can do is help one another.”
For those interested in pursuing science, Andrea has this advice: “The lab is not a science classroom; things you learn in the classroom may not help you in the lab. Stay curious—that’s what makes your time in the lab more fun.”
With unemployment at a 10-year low and employers increasingly unable to fill skilled technical positions, now is an opportune time to bring more women into middle-skill STEM jobs. Community colleges can play a central role in meeting this challenge, building on their experience engaging employers to develop overlooked talent pools.
According to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research, even though women are more likely than men to be employed in a middle-skill job—one that requires less than a Bachelor’s degree—they are much less likely to be employed in a well-paying middle-skill job. This is because women are segregated into the lowest-paid middle-skill jobs, like health support and education positions, rather than the higher-paying middle-skill jobs that are dominated by men, such as IT, advanced manufacturing, and logistics.
Given these large pay gaps, we may wonder why more women don’t pursue male-dominated middle-skill jobs. Society often wrongly assumes that women are “just not interested” in these fields or that they lack necessary mathematical aptitude or reasoning skills. Research has demonstrated, however, that the barriers women face to entering middle-skill STEM fields have more to do with negative gender stereotypes about women in male-dominated STEM fields, a lack of female role models, and a misunderstanding about the work that skilled technicians perform.
Women who have overcome these hurdles to succeed in middle-skill STEM fields of study report that employers play an important role in opening up awareness and opportunities, mainly through on-the-job experiences and connecting women with female role models. Once a woman can imagine herself succeeding in these roles, she is more likely to pursue a position in these male-dominated fields and achieve success in that role.
Mentorships, internships, on-the-job learning experiences, and apprenticeships are essential tools in broadening middle-skill STEM opportunities for women. Community colleges are well-positioned to help employers develop these types of opportunities by building upon existing employer partnerships and relationships.
Jobs for the Future’s (JFF) Resource Guide to Engaging Employers provides a framework for this work. Using JFF’s model, community colleges can engage employers in the movement to bring more women into STEM fields in a multistep, additive process that might look like this:
- Initiate conversations about the benefits to employers of recruiting from the widest possible skill pool (including women) to fill job openings.
- Ask employers to invite female tech leaders to serve on community college employer advisory boards. Colleges can invite female tech leaders to serve as classroom instructors and mentors.
- Work with employers to develop work-based learning opportunities and apprenticeships where cohorts of female students can participate. In addition to providing work experience, bringing groups of women together in a cohort model can help break the isolation that women in male-dominated fields often experience.
- Use work-based learning opportunities to help female students link into women’s career and technical education employment networks and find mentors and role models to support and inform their education and career pathways.
- Recruit employers that see the benefits of bringing more women into STEM positions—and understand what it takes to remove barriers to women’s entrance into these positions—to serve as regional and national leaders in these efforts.
Employer-community college partnerships to bring more women into STEM employment are a win-win-win proposition. Employers would have access to a larger and more diversified skilled employment pool; community colleges would meet their goals of offering accessible opportunities to all students; and women would have more and better labor market opportunities.
We can help you take action:
- JFF has experience engaging employers to open up opportunities for women in technical education and careers. Explore our resources and contact Lexie Waugh firstname.lastname@example.org for help initiating this work on your campus.
- Raise these issues with the deans and other leadership at your college and start a working group to focus on these issues, which JFF can help facilitate.
- Partner with JFF on a National Science Foundation or employer-funded project to support broadening participation of women in STEM through employer engagement on your campus.
See this blog and our Future of Work blog series at: www.jff.org/fowblogs. Also, follow @JFFtweets for resources, latest reports, and events focused on education and economic mobility.
Two Sisters Light a Path to Success at Illumina
In an age when women represent nearly 50 percent of the workforce, a significant disparity remains in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). In fact, only 14 percent of computer science majors are female; and the number of female engineers in the United States has not increased since the early 2000s, according to the Society of Women Engineers.
Ok, so you’ve heard of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) education and STEAM (adding in the Arts) and it’s all great, right? Opening doors to new opportunities, enriching education, making kids aware of, and helping them prepare for, new and exciting careers – whether that includes a track through higher education or not. We’ve heard about how U.S. students don’t stack up well against international competition in math and science and that we need to improve in order to better compete in global markets. And there are lots of articles about programs and initiatives, but how often do we look at how all of this is impacting our economy, locally, regionally and nationally?